ART (Assisted reproductive technology) refers to medical procedures aimed at helping females achieve pregnancy. The complex procedures involve influencing eggs, gametes and sperms to increase the chances of fertilisation. ART is generally an option for those for whom other options for infertility may not function or those who have already tried treatment but have failed to become pregnant. Those considering ART techniques often discuss treatment options with a doctor and may need a consultation from a healthcare specialist.
While people usually use ART to address fertility issues, others may employ it for genetic purposes or to avoid the complications of pregnancy.
Infertility can affect both men and women. Some reasons for infertility are as follows:
Several types of ART procedures can be done that involve different reproductive cells and techniques. A healthcare provider can suggest to you the ART procedure that will be most suitable depending on the circumstances. The commonest type of ART is in vitro fertilisation (IVF).
IVF involves a healthcare provider who extracts eggs and fertilises those in a special laboratory. This can be combined with an embryo transfer and transferring those into the uterus of a person. Achieving pregnancy may take more than one IVF cycle. Some people may not even conceive with IVF at all. The advantages of IVF are increased chances of pregnancy and fertilisation. Following are the potential complications:
IVF can be employed to treat infertility due to sperm antibodies, oligospermia, tubal dysfunction, unexplained fertility, or endometriosis. Following are the steps involved in the procedure:
All or some embryos may be frozen in liquid nitrogen so that those can be transferred in a subsequent cycle. The tendency to place only one embryo at each transfer and freeze the rest of the embryos for subsequent cycles is increasing for those pregnancies that don’t result. Birth defects are slightly commoner after in vitro fertilisation. However, experts are not certain about whether the higher risk is due to in vitro fertilisation or other factors contributing to infertility as infertility itself enhances the risk of birth defects.
Preimplantation genetic testing can be performed on cells from an oocyte’s polar body or cells from an embryo (either a trophectoderm cell from a 5- or 6-day-old embryo or blastomere from a 3-day-old embryo). Testing may include preimplantation genetic screening so that aneuploidy and/or preimplantation genetic diagnosis can be ruled out to check for certain complicated hereditary disorders. If the results of the test are delayed, the blastocyst can be frozen and transferred in a later cycle after we know the results.
Some ART methods are similar to IVF. However, the gametes can be directly transferred into the fallopian tube with laparoscopic surgery. This method may be chosen by people for religious reasons. Just like other types of ART, there is a high risk of multiple pregnancy. Apart from that, due to laparoscopy, there is an increased risk of complications due to surgery such as organ puncture, infection, or side effects from anaesthesia. Intrafallopian transfer procedure is usually more expensive than IVF. Due to increased risk of this type of ART and higher cost of treatment, these procedures are rarely used these days. Following are the types of intrafallopian transfer:
Frozen embryo transfer
Frozen embryo transfer (FET) involves thawing and inserting previously IVF frozen embryos into the uterus of a person. Frozen embryo transfer is as safe as using fresh embryos for treatment.
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a procedure that doctors can choose to perform alongside in vitro fertilisation to help fertilise an egg. An embryo specialist or an embryologist employs a small needle to introduce a single sperm directly into the centre of an egg.
ICSI fertilises around 50–80% of eggs. Its success rate is similar to that of IVF, and it can be an effective method of ART for females who have sperm-related infertility problems. It is typically used as an add-on procedure to IVF, so it is naturally more costly than IVF alone.
Following are some things to consider about ICSI:
Third-party ART refers to when other individuals donate sperm, eggs, or embryos to a couple or an individual. It can also include gestational carriers and surrogates. It is when another person is either inseminated with sperm from the couple with ART or implanted with an embryo from those using artificial reproductive techniques. Following are some benefits of using third-party ART:
Artificial insemination: Introduction of sperms into the uterus or female cervix deliberately to achieve pregnancy without sexual intercourse. Following are the types of artificial insemination - intracervical insemination, intrauterine insemination, and intratubal insemination.
Preparation for the ART treatment includes practices that may improve the chances of success of ART. This involves dietary changes like taking supplements that a doctor recommends and reducing caffeine and alcohol intake. It could also include quitting smoking and regular exercise. After ART is successful, prenatal tests and care can help keep the baby and the pregnant female healthy during pregnancy.
If you are looking for a centre for ART treatment in Indore, you can visit Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Indore and get an appointment with an expert doctor who will guide you to the next step. Meet the best gynaecologists in Indore for dedicated medical services for ART. All the procedures are performed by highly skilled doctors who ensure that they are accurate and error-free. Our team is renowned for IVF treatment in Indore.
Top gynaecologists in Indore perform ART procedures with great expertise. The Department of Gynaecology & Obstetrics follows the best medical practices to optimise the quality of results. Further our laboratories are computerised workplaces equipped with high-end software for Hospital Information systems (HIS) where each patient’s medical condition and reports are uploaded.