Haematology Laboratory

Haematology Laboratory

Haematology is the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of people with disorders of the blood and the bone marrow. While a haematologist spends most of his time delivering clinical care to patients, significant work has to be done in the laboratory to diagnose the disorders. To deliver optimum treatment, Haematologists work closely with the experts of other departments such as oncologists, internists, and blood transfusion staff.

A wide range of laboratory investigations are performed by haematologists to prepare and interpret results at the Haematology Laboratory at Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Indore. This helps the clinicians diagnose and treat a wide range of diseases and disorders. The investigations performed in the Haematology laboratory also supports other hospital departments like intensive care, accident and emergency, operating theatres, oncology, and special care baby units. For example, haematologists receive blood samples from surgeons, which they then check for abnormalities. They examine the blood film and if they suspect any abnormalities, such as leukaemia, they evaluate the patient, explain concerns, go for a bone marrow biopsy, and carefully assess the samples. This way the diagnosis can be established within a few hours. This is extremely important and significant for prognosis as in most cases, treatment needs to be started immediately.

Patients with different types of anaemia are also diagnosed and treated in the haematology department. A part of Haematology also deals with transfusion medicine, the department that ensures adequate stocks of safe blood are available whenever blood transfusions are needed. In the department, it is confirmed which donated blood is appropriate for a certain patient based on his blood group and other blood characteristics. This way haematologists also provide vital support for blood transfusion, stem cell transplantation, and organ transplantation. Reach out to the best Blood Bank in Indore at our hospital for any transfusion requirements.

The Department of Clinical Haematology at Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Indore provides medical expertise and services related to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of haematological diseases and disorders in adults and children. Adequate facilities for undertaking chemotherapy and other therapeutic procedures are available in the department.

Acute lymphocytic leukaemia

Acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) is a form of haematological cancer of the bone marrow and blood. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue present inside bones where blood cells are produced.

The word "acute" in acute lymphocytic leukaemia means that the progression of the disease is rapid and results in the formation of immature blood cells, rather than mature blood cells. And the word "lymphocytic" here means that the white blood cells called lymphocytes are affected here. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is also referred to as acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

This cancer is the commonest form of cancer that occurs in children and its treatments have a good chance of cure. The disease can affect adults also; however, the chances of complete cure in them are greatly reduced.


The signs and symptoms of ALL include bone pain, bleeding from the gums, fever, frequent or severe nosebleeds, frequent infections, pale skin, lumps caused by swollen lymph nodes in and around the armpits, neck, groyne, or abdomen, shortness of breath, weakness, fatigue, a decrease in energy, and shortness of breath.

When to see a doctor?

If you notice any persistent signs and symptoms that concern you, you must make an appointment with your doctor or your child’s doctor. Many symptoms of acute lymphocytic leukaemia mimic those of flu. However, those with the flu usually improve after a period of time. If the signs and symptoms don’t seem to resolve, you must make an appointment with your doctor.

Acute myelogenous leukaemia

Acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) refers to the malignancy of the blood and bone marrow. Here also, the word "acute" indicates that the progression of the disease is quite rapid. It is known as myelogenous leukaemia as a group of white blood cells known as myeloid cells are affected here. These cells usually develop into the different types of mature blood cells like white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.

Acute myelogenous leukaemia is also referred to as acute myeloblastic leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia, acute non lymphocytic leukaemia, and acute granulocytic leukaemia.


The signs and symptoms of early acute myelogenous leukaemia mimic those of the flu or other common medical conditions. The signs and symptoms include bone pain, fever, shortness of breath, fatigue and lethargy, pale skin, easy bruising, recurrent infections, and unusual bleeding such as frequent bleeding from the gums and frequent nosebleeds.

When to see a doctor?

If you notice unusual signs and symptoms or symptoms that worry you, you must make an appointment with an expert. If you are located in Indore, you can visit the Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Indore and get an appointment with an expert doctor who will guide you to the next step.


Amyloidosis is a relatively rare disorder that occurs when a protein known as amyloid accumulates in the organs. The accumulation of this amyloid prevents the organs from functioning properly. Organs affected by this condition include the kidneys, heart, spleen, liver, digestive tract, and the nervous system. Some forms of amyloidosis may occur with other conditions. These types may improve upon treatment of those diseases. On the other hand, some forms of amyloidosis may even result in life-threatening organ failure.

Treatment for amyloidosis include chemotherapy with medications called chemotherapeutic drugs - drugs that are used to treat cancers. Some other types of medications are also used to relieve the symptoms of amyloidosis by reducing amyloid production. Some patients may benefit from stem cell transplants or organ transplants.


The symptoms of amyloidosis include purpura around the eyes and an enlarged tongue. You may even be asymptomatic until the disease has reached an advanced stage. The signs and symptoms of amyloidosis vary, depending on which organs have been affected by the condition.

Following are some signs and symptoms of amyloidosis:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Severe fatigue and weakness
  • Swelling of the ankles and legs
  • Numbness, tingling, or pain in the hands or feet
  • An enlarged tongue, which sometimes looks rippled around its edge
  • Diarrhoea, possibly with blood, or constipation
  • Skin changes, including thickening or easy bruising, and purplish patches surrounding the eyes

When to see a doctor?

If you regularly notice signs and symptoms associated with amyloidosis, you must seek an appointment with a healthcare provider.


Anaemia is a medical condition characterised by the lack of adequate red blood cells to carry oxygen to the tissues of the body. Being anaemic also means that you have a low haemoglobin level, that may make you feel weak and tired. Anaemia is of different types, with each having its own cause. Anaemia can either be temporary or long-term. It can either be mild or severe in nature. In most cases, anaemia tends to have more than one cause. You must seek an appointment with your doctor if you suspect you may have the condition as it may be an indication of an even more dangerous illness.

Treatment of anaemia depends on its cause— it can range from taking supplements to having a surgery. Some types of anaemia can be prevented by consuming a healthy and nutritious diet.


  • Iron deficiency anaemia
  • Aplastic anaemia
  • ThalassemiaSickle cell anaemia
  • Vitamin deficiency anaemia


The signs and symptoms of anaemia vary and depend on its cause and severity. Depending on the cause, you may even be asymptomatic. If signs and symptoms are present, those may include weakness, fatigue, irregular heartbeats, yellowish or pale skin, shortness of breath, chest pain, lightheadedness or dizziness, cold hands and feet, and headaches. At first, the symptoms may be so mild that those will also not be noticeable. However, the symptoms tend to worsen as the condition worsens.

When to see a doctor?

If you feel fatigue or dyspnoeic for no apparent reason, you must seek an appointment with an expert doctor. You must, however, remember that fatigue has many causes apart from anaemia. So, don’t just assume that you have anaemia just because you are fatigued. Some patients suffering from anaemia have a low haemoglobin level. If your haemoglobin level is lower than normal, you must talk to a doctor.

Antiphospholipid syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome is a medical condition in which the body’s immune system tends to mistakenly produce antibodies that attack its own tissues. These antibodies can lead to the formation of blood clots in the veins and arteries. Blood clots can also develop in the lungs, legs, and other body organs such as the spleen and the kidney. The clots can cause many complications such as strokes, heart attack, and other conditions. Antiphospholipid syndrome can cause miscarriage and stillbirth in pregnant women.


Following are the possible signs and symptoms of antiphospholipid syndrome:

  • Blood clots in legs.
  • Repeated stillbirths or miscarriages.
  • Stroke
  • Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
  • Rash

Following are some less common signs and symptoms of antiphospholipid syndrome:

  • Neurological symptoms
    Chronic headaches, such as migraines; seizures and dementia are possible when a blood clot obstructs the blood flow to some areas of the brain.
  • Cardiovascular disease
    Antiphospholipid syndrome can cause damage to the valves of the heart.
  • Thrombocytopenia or low blood platelet counts
    It is a decrease in the blood cells that are required for clotting. Their deficiency can lead to episodes of bleeding, particularly from the gums and nose. Bleeding into the skin usually appears as patches of small red spots.

When to see a doctor?

You must contact your doctor if you suffer from unexplained bleeding from the gums or nose; menstrual periods that are unusual; bright-red coloured or coffee- coloured vomit; bright red or black, tarry stool; or unexplained abdominal pain.

You must seek emergency medical care and attention if you have signs and symptoms of:

  • Stroke. A clot in the brain can lead to sudden weakness, numbness, or paralysis of the face, leg or arm. You may face difficulty understanding speech or speaking, have visual disturbances and a severe headache.
  • Pulmonary embolism: If a blood clot lodges in one of the lungs, you may face chest pain, sudden shortness of breath, and coughing up blood-streaked mucus.
  • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): Signs and symptoms of DVTs include redness, swelling, or pain in a leg or arm.


Cancer is any one of a wide range of diseases that are characterised by the development of abnormal cells that tend to divide and multiply in an uncontrollable fashion and hold the ability to destroy and infiltrate the normal tissues of the body. Cancer can often spread throughout your body.

Cancer is the second-leading cause of death worldwide. However, the survival rates have been showing improvement for many types of cancer due to the advancements and improvements in cancer screening, prevention and treatment.


Signs and symptoms of cancer vary, depending which body part is affected. Following are some possible signs and symptoms of cancer:

  • Lump or area of thickening that can be felt under the skin
  • Fatigue
  • Weight changes, including unintended gain or loss
  • Skin changes, such as darkening, yellowing, or redness of the skin
  • Non-healing sores
  • Changes to existing moles
  • Persistent cough or trouble breathing
  • Changes in bowel or bladder habits
  • Hoarseness
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Persistent, unexplained muscle or joint pain
  • Persistent indigestion or discomfort after eating
  • Unexplained bleeding or bruising
  • Persistent, unexplained fevers or night sweats

When to see a doctor?

You must seek an appointment with a healthcare provider if you notice any persistent signs or symptoms that concern you.

If you don't have signs or symptoms, but are worried about your cancer risk, you should discuss your concerns with your healthcare provider and ask him about which screening tests and procedures for cancer are best suited for you.

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a type of blood and bone marrow cancer. The term "chronic" here indicates that this leukaemia usually progresses more slowly than other types. The term "lymphocytic" in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia indicates that the cells affected by the disease are lymphocytes — a group of white blood cells that aid the body to fight against infections.

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia commonly affects older adults. Treatments are available to help control the disease and its progression.


At first, most patients of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia have no symptoms. With the progression of the disease, signs and symptoms may occur that include fatigue, enlarged and painless lymph nodes, fever, pain in the upper left abdomen which may be caused by an enlarged spleen, weight loss, night sweats, frequent infections, and weight loss.

When to see a doctor?

You must seek an appointment with a doctor if you notice any persistent signs and symptoms that worry you.

Chronic myelogenous leukaemia

Chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML) is a rare type of blood and bone marrow cancer that is characterised by an increased number of white blood cells in the blood. The term "chronic" here indicates that this cancer tends to progress more slowly than acute types of leukaemia. The term "myelogenous" refers to the type of cells that this cancer affects.

Chronic myelogenous leukaemia is also known as chronic granulocytic leukaemia or chronic myeloid leukaemia. It typically affects older adults and uncommonly affects children, although it can affect individuals of any age. Advances in treatment have contributed greatly to an improved prognosis for patients with chronic myelogenous leukaemia. Most patients achieve remission and survive for many years post-diagnosis.


Chronic myelogenous leukaemia is usually asymptomatic. It might be accidentally diagnosed during a blood test. When symptoms occur, those include easy bleeding, bone pain, feeling run-down or tired, feeling full after eating a small amount of food, fever, loss of appetite, weight loss without trying, excessive sweating during sleeping or night sweats, and pain or fullness below the ribs on the left side.

When to see a doctor?

You must seek an appointment with a doctor if you notice any persistent signs or symptoms that worry you.

Hairy cell leukaemia

Hairy cell leukaemia is a type of cancer that affects white blood cells— the cells that help fight against germs and infections. Few different types of white blood cells are known. The white blood cells involved in hairy cell leukaemia are referred to as B cells, also known as B lymphocytes.

The body produces too many B cells in hairy cell leukaemia. The cells, therefore, don't appear like healthy B cells. Instead, they've undergone alterations to turn into leukaemia cells— cells that appear "hairy" under a microscope.

Hairy cell leukaemia cells keep living when healthy cells would die as part of the natural cell life cycle. The leukaemia cells build up in the body and cause symptoms. Hairy cell leukaemia usually tends to worsen over time. Treatment might not be required to be started right away. When it's needed, treatment is usually started with chemotherapy.


Hairy cell leukaemia may be an asymptomatic condition and may be diagnosed accidentally during a blood test performed for some other condition. When it results in the development of symptoms, it causes:

  • Fatigue
  • A feeling of fullness in the abdomen making it uncomfortable to eat more than a little at a time
  • Recurring infections
  • Easy bruising
  • Losing weight without trying
  • Weakness

When to see a doctor?

You must seek appointment with a doctor if you notice any persistent signs and symptoms that worry you.


Hemophilia is an uncommon condition which is caused by failure of the blood to clot because of lack of adequate clotting proteins called clotting factors. Having haemophilia means that you might keep bleeding for a prolonged period of time after an injury than you would if your blood had enough clotting factors. Some injuries or cuts don’t pose much of a problem. However, if you suffer from severe forms of haemophilia, the primary concern is internal bleeding or bleeding inside the body, especially inside the ankles, knees, and elbows. Internal bleeding can cause damage to the tissues and organs and turn life-threatening.

Haemophilia is a hereditary disorder and the treatment for the condition includes replacement of the specific clotting factor regularly. Newer therapies that don’t involve clotting factors are also being employed.


The signs and symptoms of haemophilia vary as they depend on the level of clotting factors in the body. If the level of clotting factors in the body is mildly reduced, you might bleed only after trauma or surgery. On the other hand, if you have severe deficiency, you can bleed easily for no apparent reason.

The symptoms of spontaneous bleeding include:

  • Many large or deep bruises
  • Excessive and unexplained bleeding from injuries or cuts, or after surgery or dental procedures
  • Swelling, pain or tightness in your joints
  • Unusual bleeding after vaccinations
  • Nosebleeds without a known cause
  • Blood in your urine or stool
  • Bleeding into the brain
  • Unexplained irritability in infants

A simple bump on the head can result in bleeding into the brain for some patients with severe forms of haemophilia. This occurs rarely, however, it is one of the most serious complications that can happen. The possible signs and symptoms of haemophilia include:

  • Repeated vomiting
  • Painful, prolonged headache
  • Double vision
  • Sleepiness or lethargy
  • Sudden weakness or clumsiness
  • Seizures or convulsions

When to see a doctor?

You must seek emergency medical care and attention if you or your child has:

  • An injury in which the bleeding won't stop
  • Signs or symptoms of bleeding into the brain
  • Swollen joints that are hot to the touch and painful to bend

Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that affects type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Healthy plasma cells aid the body in fighting against infections by producing antibodies that identify and attack germs and infections agents.

Malignant plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow in multiple myeloma and displace the healthy blood cells. Instead of producing helpful antibodies, these malignant cells release abnormal proteins that can lead to serious complications.

Multiple myeloma treatment is usually not started right away as it may not be necessary in initial stages. If the multiple myeloma is not causing any symptoms and is slow growing, your doctor may recommend close monitoring of the symptoms instead of immediate treatment. For multiple myeloma patients who need treatment, multiple options are available to help control the disease and its progression.


The symptoms of multiple myeloma vary, depending on the stage and severity of the disease. In earlier stages, the disease is even asymptomatic.

When signs and symptoms do happen, they can include nausea, bone pain, especially in your spine or chest, loss of appetite, constipation, fatigue, confusion or mental fogginess, weight loss, frequent infections, excessive thirst, and numbness or weakness in the legs.

When to see a doctor?

You must seek an appointment with your doctor if you notice signs and symptoms that worry you.

The haematologists at Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Indore employ advanced diagnostic techniques and treatments to treat haematological diseases in the best way. Consult the best haematologists in Indore to discuss all the suitable treatment options. For many patients, that might mean selecting minimally invasive procedures developed at Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital that give rise to excellent outcomes and ensure rapid recovery.

Haematological services at Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Indore include treatment for a wide range of haematological conditions like haemophilia, Von Willebrand disease, iron deficiency anaemia, haemolytic anaemia, aplastic anaemia, Thalassemia, leukaemia, multiple myeloma, and Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. When you come to Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, you are taken care of by one of the best haematologists in Indore who are committed to delivering advanced surgical care at the hospital's campus in Indore.