A stroke brain attack occurs when blood supply to part the brain is interrupted. As a result, the brain cells do not get enough oxygen and nutrients and begin to die within a few minutes. This can cause long lasting brain damage, disability or even death.

Strokes are of 2 types:

  • Ischaemic stroke
    is caused when a blood clot obstructs blood supply in the brain. It is the common cause of all stokes and accounts to 80% of cases.
  • Haemorrhagic stroke
    is caused due to bleeding from a blood vessel within the brain.

Certain factors increase the risk of getting a brain stroke. These include:

  • Hypertension or high blood pressure
  • Heart diseases like atrial fibrillation
  • High cholesterol
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Smoking
  • Age – Risk of stroke increases with age.
  • Race and ethnicity – African Americans have a higher risk of getting stroke.

Stroke signs and symptoms occur very quickly and require immediate attention and treatment. Common signs and symptoms to look out for include:

  • Sudden weakness or numbness on one side of the body in the face, arm or leg
  • Confusion and trouble in speaking
  • Vision issues in one or both the eyes
  • Difficulty in walking and loss of balance
  • Dizziness and headache with no known cause

Stroke diagnosis is made based on the symptoms, medical history and physical examination of the patient that involves checking for numbness, coordination, mental alertness, vision and clarity of speech. Imaging tests such as a CT or MRI scan may be done to assess the cause and damage done.

Stroke treatment depends on the type of stroke and includes drugs and/or surgery.

Ischaemic stroke

  • Administration of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) within 4 hours to dissolve the blood clot.
  • Administration of drugs to stop platelets from clumping together.
  • Surgery to open blocked coronary artery in case of coronary artery disease.

Haemorrhagic stroke

  • Blood pressure medications if blood pressure is the cause of bleeding.
  • Aneurysm clipping or coil embolization if an aneurysm is the cause of bleed.
  • Surgery and radiation of an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is the cause of stroke.

There are certain factors that need to be kept in mind during stroke management until medical care is given. These include:

  • Make the patient lie down on the floor or a hard surface.
  • If the patient is having a seizure, give them support to prevent them from falling down.
  • Loosen all tight clothing.
  • If patient is vomiting, turn them to one side.
  • Call for medical care immediately.
  • Do not try to mobilize the patient yourself.
  • Inform the patient’s relatives immediately.
  • Do not give any medicines unless advised by the doctor.

The Centre for Neurosciences at Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Indore houses some of the best stroke treatment doctors in Indore. The Centre is capable of handling different types of conditions arising out of nervous system disorders. Top neurosurgeons with many years of expertise provide treatment at par with international standards.