Brain Tumour

Brain Tumour

A brain tumour is an abnormal growth of tissue in or around the brain. Some tumours grow quickly while some grow slowly. A majority of brain tumours interfere with normal brain activity due to the pressure they exert on the surrounding brain tissues. Brain tumours are common in children as compared to adults.

Brain tumours can be classified based on the underlying pathology as noncancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant).

Benign tumours can cause serious issues by exerting pressure on the surrounding brain tissue, but they don't spread to other tissues. They can be easily removed surgically and do not recur.

Malignant tumours grow rapidly and can spread to other parts of the brain or nervous system, which can be fatal.

Brain tumours can be categorized as primary or secondary tumours.

Tumours that develop in the brain are called primary tumours. They are usually benign.

The most common type of primary tumours are gliomas and meningiomas.

Tumours that spread to the brain after developing in another part of the body are called secondary or metastatic tumours. They make up a majority of brain tumours and are always malignant.

The cause of brain tumour is not known but there could be several risk factors that can make one prone to developing brain tumours. Brain tumour risk factors include:

  • Age
    Risk of brain tumour increases with age, although some brain tumours are more common in children.
  • Family history
    Some genetic conditions are known to increase the risk of developing brain tumour.
  • Radiation
    Exposure to ionizing radiation like cancer therapy and atomic bomb increases the risk of brain tumour.

Brain tumour symptoms vary depending on the size and location of the tumour in the brain. Some tumours cause direct damage to the brain tissue while others cause symptoms due to the pressure they exert on the surrounding tissues. Common signs and symptoms of brain tumour include:

  • Headaches that are worse on waking up in the morning and during movement
  • Unexplained nausea or vomiting
  • Blurred vision
  • Weakness of a part of the face or body
  • Change in mental functioning
  • Difficulty in balancing
  • Seizures especially in adults

Brain tumor Diagnosis is made based on medical history and a detailed neurological examination, which looks for changes in balance and coordination, vision changes and reflexes. These changes can point to the part of the brain that might be affected.

Imaging tests like CT scan, MRI and angiography of the head help visualize the size and exact position of the brain tumour. They also provide information about blood supply in the brain.

A biopsy of the tumour helps identify the type of tumour. This procedure is done by a neurosurgeon who removes a part or the entire tumour, which is then examined under a microscope.

A spinal tap or lumbar puncture is done to remove cerebrospinal fluid from the spine, which is tested for presence of cancerous cells.

The brain tumor treatment depends on several factors like the tumour’s size, location, type, age and overall health of the person.

Brain tumours are usually treated with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy – alone or in combination.

  • Brain surgery or craniotomy
    is done to remove the tumour. Benign tumours are usually removed successfully with surgery with no relapse.
  • Radiation therapy
    uses high doses of X-rays to destroy brain tumour cells and shrink the size of the tumour. In a procedure called radiosurgery, focused beams of radiation are used to destroy the tumour.
  • Chemotherapy
    Brain cancer treatment uses anti-cancer drugs to kill the cancer cells in the brain tumour. It can be administered through an injection or a pill. Other treatment options include immunotherapy, targeted therapy and medications and shunts to reduce pressure in the skull.

The Centre for Neurosciences at Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Indore offers the best brain tumour treatment in Indore. The Centre is equipped with modern infrastructure with facilities like CT scan, EMG, transcranial doppler machine and portable EEG machines that help in cases of emergency. The Centre is managed by a team that includes top doctors for brain tumour surgery, neurologists and experienced technicians and staff.